Closed Back Headphones vs. Open-back Headphones
Open-back headphones have pads which rest on the outer ear. They’re designed such that the outer shell of the ear cup has perforations usually with horizontal cutouts. The Open back headphones design of the ear cup enhances better natural sound because of less coloration as compared to the Closed back headphones.
Closed back headphones have much larger earpads which encircle the ears. They are designed such that there’s a big pad which cups the ears, and it features an insulated outer shell of plastic which covers the ears. The Closed back headphones actually have a very solid outer shell which doesn’t have any sort of perforations such that the outer shell effectively cups/encircles the entire ear. The Closed back headphones are excellent at isolating noise. They block most of the ambient noise, but they’ve a smaller sound stage, which gives the user the perception that the audio/sound is originating from within their head. Closed back headphones also tend to produce much stronger low frequencies as compared to Open back headphones.
Low Impedance vs High Impedance
Headphones normally come in various different impedance levels, such as 8 ohms, 16 ohms and 32 ohms. The power that’s supplied by an audio source may be at varying levels because of a variety of factors including being limited because of being battery powered. Generally, as the impedance of the headphones increases, much more voltage will be required in order to drive it, and the audio loudness of headphones for a particular voltage decreases.
The determination of impedance is usually disregarded by many headphone buyers, however, the truth is it’s one of the most important factors to consider when choosing the best headphones for your particular needs. Impedance is basically just how much power the headphones can put out so that it can overcome resistance to move the headphones’ diaphragm.
Low impedance headphones (that is, less than 25 ohm), usually require little power in order to deliver high audio levels. Low Impedance headphones play well with devices which have weak amplification. These can include; mobile phones, portable music players and various other portable devices. This type of headphones can be used at home and also while jogging with your mobile phone; this is one of the reasons why most of the on-, in-, and over the ear headphones, are low impedance. Low impedance headphones are normally designed to get plugged directly in to a single (one) source, and generates sound more efficiently from a lower level input signal. This headphones tend to be much louder and much more efficient, however, they will also require a much more capable amplifier.
High impedance headphones (25 ohms and above), generally require more power in order to deliver high audio levels. As a result, they’re protected from damages caused by overloading. High impedance headphones are typically designed for studio like applications where there might be multiple phones/devices wired in parallel and receiving input signals from a single source. High impedance headphones are more tolerant of the amplifier limitations, however, they will produce less volume for a particular output level. They are also a little more durable (that is, electronically), however, they require much higher signal levels in order to produce the same level of output level of the low impedance headphones. This type of headphones can be used with a wider range of audio equipment.
Passive Headphones vs. Active Headphones
Passive (noise cancelling) headphones are made of materials which help in blocking out sound waves from the surrounding environment. The same way ear muffs soften the outside noise, so does this type of headphones employ passive noise canceling. This type of headphones are typically used for both professional mixing and monitoring, like in broadcast and recording studios, and such other applications. Passive headphones are basically designed to playback music/audio true to the actual original recording, with minimal, compression, EQ, and such other sound enhancements.
On the other hand, Active headphones use batteries in order to power the built in Digital Signal Processing (also abbreviated as DSP) technology which processes play back for a particular reason, for example, to enhance the bass and the high end. Due to the enhancement of playbacks with sharper high ends and more bass, active headphones are more popular for general listening and listening to music for pleasure. Active noise cancelling headphones are also made of materials which help in blocking out outside noise, however, they take things a step further by making their very own sound waves; the sound waves created mimic the outside noises, but are a mirror image of each other, thus cancels each other out.
Wired Headphones Vs Wireless Headphones
When choosing a pair of headphones, deciding between wireless vs. wired is among one of the most overlooked factors. Wireless headphones might be a more popular choice, however, the wired headphones also have their own set of benefits. Well, that being said, as a general rule of thumb, between wireless headphones and wired headphones, assuming a similar price between the models; the wired headphones usually offer a much better quality. Also, the audio quality may get compromised over Bluetooth.
You can opt for the wireless headphones if you are not much of an audiophile, and you tend to travel a lot. If you really don’t like getting the cables of your headphones getting tangled, or caught while listening to music/audio, then the choice should be rather simple; go for wireless headphones.
You can opt for the wired headphones if you are an audiophile, and you do not necessarily bother with the wireless options unless absolutely essential like using them when traveling, or keeping the headphones as a backup. As aforementioned, the wired headphones are way ahead in terms of output quality as compared to the wireless headphones. You will never have to worry about running out of batteries, unless you happen to opt for wired headphones which cancel noise. In addition, you will never suffer from interference from the other commonly used wireless electronic devices. However, you will need to take good care of the wired headphone cables, or they will eventually break.
Technology is improving each and every day, but these advancements have left many of us tightly trapped in the luxuries and comforts, imposing many side effects on our overall health. One such modern advancement in technology that’s affecting our health is the use of headphones. Today, many people use headphones without knowing the kind of negative health issues the devices can cause.
Well, although headphones are an ergonomic, convenient and quite useful hands free accessories, there are various health risks that are associated with their use. Experts believe that prolonged use of headphones can cause great damage to the ears. In addition, headphones cause ear infections, which contributes to hearing loss. Well, some of the risks that are associated with headphones have more to do with their use and maintenance, than with the headphones mechanics.
Ear infections are much more likely to occur amongst the headphone users who wear the devices for extended periods of time, and also amongst those who don’t take good care of their headphones. For example, headphone ear cushions need to be replaced every 2-3 months, and should be treated regularly with the right cleaning agent so as to avoid accumulation of germs and bacteria. Prolonged headphone use also causes aural hygiene issues, hearing loss along with ear canal infections. Recent scientific studies have revealed that wearing headphones for extended periods of time usually increase the humidity and the temperatures inside the ear canals, thereby increasing one’s susceptibility to ear infections. This shows that headphones cause ear infections.
Sharing of headphones is another way headphones cause ear infections. It is quite common for people to share their headphones with others. Sharing headphones with others is not a good idea since the bacteria from other people’s ears will travel to your very own ears and this will cause ear infections. Therefore, the next time you think of sharing your headphones, think again. Do not share your headphones with anyone, not even your friends or family.
Listening to music together is another way headphones cause ear infections. As romantic as it may seem, there are dire repercussions to sharing headphones. In the process of enjoying music together, you will end up transferring somebody elseâs bacteria to your ears; this can lead to ear infections. Make sure you sanitize your headphones by thoroughly cleaning them with a clean tissue paper before plugging them in.
Apart from the germs and bacteria you get from borrowing or/and sharing headphones, you can also get germs and bacteria from not changing your very own headphone sponges. It’s recommended you change the rubber or sponge cover of your headphones every 2-3 months mainly because they tend to get covered with germs and bacteria over time.
Some other ways you can avoid ear infections caused by headphones is by always keeping your headphones clean, regularly replacing the old headphones and ear pads, avoiding sharing headphones or using the public headphones, and not sharing earbuds. Also, if your headphones have a sponge or a rubber cover, make sure you change them every 2 months. Finally, remember to give your ears some rest once every 15 minutes, and do not play the music way too loud, for this might contribute to hearing loss.
It is understood that ear moulded plugs are far more comfortable and effective than the mushroom plugs, but which ones are the best? The Custom fit or generic fit. This article runs over the positives and negatives of that question and comes to a conclusion, if your debating to get some moulded ear plugs or some from the shelf, you will want to read this first.
Over the past 20 years,Â In Ear MonitorsÂ (orÂ IEMs) have become a near-necessity for live performance.
In years prior, engineers would inevitably have to crank up a venueâs stage monitors loud enough for the musicians to hear themselves over the audience, over the sound coming from the stage, and over the main mix.
This would often lead to an arms race of ever-increasing stage volume, potentially causing feedback issues and compromises in clarity and quality for the live mix.
Custom in-ear monitors from JH Audio, one of the first commercial brands to make a name for itself in the IEM market.
With the advent of in-ear monitors, all this began to change.Â In the mid-1980s,Â EtymoticÂ developed the first-ever insert-styleÂ earphones, and soon after, a designer namedÂ Marty GarciaÂ began making one-off custom in-ears for rock stars like Todd Rundgren.
By 1995, Jerry Harvey, founder ofÂ Ultimate EarsandÂ JH Audio,Â brought some ofÂ the first commercially-available dual-driver IEMs to market. All of a sudden,Â everyday musicians had an option that allowed usÂ to save our hearing, get better monitor mixes, and dramatically reduce the chances of feedback onstage.
Today, IEMs are increasingly being considered useful tools for the studio as well. Their ability to prevent sound leakage can be of tremendous value in helping to control click and instrument bleed, and in saving musiciansâ hearing by allowing them to monitor at lower levels.
Some musicians and engineers, such as drummer Rich Pagano ofÂ The Fab Faux, will use IEMs to quickly check for phase when micâing up a drum kit, while others turn to IEMs as a kind of audio microscope, using them to help check for and remove extraneous low-level noise.
Any modern musician would be wise to consider adding in-ear monitors to their toolkit. But is it worth it to dish out the extra money on custom fit IEMs, instead of saving some money with the generic fit ones?
In testing a variety of in-ear monitors from brands like Westone, Ultimate Ears, Future Sonics, and even Skullcandy (that last of which is not recommended for professional use), I have found that there are cases in which generic fit earphones may work better than their custom counterparts. Making the right decision for your needs comes down to considering the following four factors:
Ultimate Ears custom fit in-ear monitors.
Custom fit IEMs tend to cost more than generic fit ones, as it takes more time and effort for the manufacturer to craft a product designed specifically for the unique anatomy of your ear.
Getting custom IEMs made also requires that you go to an audiologist to make a mold of your ear canal that the IEM company can then use to make your monitors fit as well as possible.
Take note of both of these costs, which can range from $100-$200 or more for a fitting from an audiologist, and $299-$1499 or more for the custom monitors to be made.
2)Â Comfort & Seal
Custom fit IEMs areÂ custom, so they should feel really comfortable, right? Â Well, yes and no.
In my experience, custom fit IEMs can feel a little tight in the ear canal compared to generics, especially at first. Hearing so little acoustic feedback from your performance can also take some getting used to, and the tight seal of custom fit in-ears can feel particularly awkward when signing.
Because of this, my looser-fittingÂ Westone 3Â generic IEMs actually feel more comfortable to me on vocal duties, so I often find myself using them over my custom fitÂ Future SonicsÂ when I step up to the mic.
Matt Bellamy from MuseÂ (recently featured inÂ Get THAT Guitar Tone) has been seen using both customUltimate Ears UE-11s and generic-fitÂ Westone UM2s when on tour, and my guess is that he has similar reasons.
Though the tight fit of custom IEMs and lack of acoustic feedback from your performance can be a challenge, itâs worth noting that generic foam-tip IEMs also provide their own tradeoffs: The looser fit of generics can sometimes create a bit of a tingling or âticklingâ feeling in your ear when playing at higher volumes, so it may be useful to have a pair of each and go with what feels best depending on the date and venue.
Silicone-based Encore Studio custom IEMs from ACS.
Another option here is the custom fit brandACS, which makes its IEMs out of soft silicone shells.
This softer silicone-based design is meant to offer both better comfort and a tighter fit than the hard acrylic shells used by brands like Westone and Ultimate Ears.
Though these silicone monitors sell for a premium price of $400-$1,200 and up, they may help bridge the gap between the tight seal of custom acrylics and the looser and easier fit of foam-tipped generic IEMs.
3)Â Hearing Protection
In addition to cutting down on sound leakage to help improve sound quality and reduce feedback, another primary benefit of IEMs is that they can offer considerable hearing protection by helping to block out exterior noise, allowing you to monitor at lower levels.
Some of the best custom fit brands likeÂ JH AudioÂ andÂ Ultimate EarsÂ offer NRR ratings of 26dB in reduction, and some of the better generic brands advertise comparable results as well. (Though your results with generics may vary depending on the fit and seal in your ear.)
In the long term, reducing the levels youâre regularly exposed toâeven by a few extra decibelsâcould mean the difference between a long and illustrious career as a âgolden-earedâ audio engineer and potentialtinnitusÂ and irreversible hearing loss.
Also worth checking out is theÂ REV33Â system, which can be added on to yourÂ your in-ear-monitoring system to help reduce distortion and ear strain. Many live musicians, includingÂ Phil XÂ and Steve Salas swear by the system. According to the company:
âAll in-ear monitors and headphones generate damaging, unwanted noise and distortion that forces the ear to shut down and compress for protection. The REV33 reduces the symptoms of tinnitus, ear-ringing, ear-fatigue, buzzing and dampened hearing by preventing in-ear monitors and headphones from producing this unwanted noise and distortion.â
4)Â WaitingÂ and TimeÂ Considerations
After getting my first pair of IEMâs made, I found that the right ear monitor turned out well, but I was not getting a proper seal in the left ear at first. This made the monitors essentially useless for my live sound needs at the time, and so I had to send them back for some tweaking.
When I got them back a couple of weeks later, the seal still wasnât great, so I had to send them back once again for further modification, and visit my audiologist a second time to take another impression of my ear canal to send in.
Getting the perfect fit turned out to be quite a time-consuming process (as well as an expensive one) so unless youâre on the hunt for a long-term solution with as much acoustic isolation as humanly possible, you might satisfice with generic IEMs, or keep some around as an alternate option.
In that case, I would recommend the generic in-ears from Ultimate Ears, Shure, or Westone.
Ultimate Earsâ generic fit UE900 model sports 4 drivers for $400.
TheÂ Ultimate Ears UE900âs are a great sounding 4-driver IEM that only costs $399, while the $99Â Shure SE215Â single-driver IEMs advertise an astonishing 37dB of noise reduction (more than most custom IEMs) at a great price.
My own triple-driver Westone 3âs (since replaced by theÂ W30 model) are the most comfortable in ear monitors I own right now, and they isolate a lot more noise than most thanks to their foam-tip construction.
Compared to custom in-ears, any of these model can potentially save you time and money, or work as a welcome supplement for those times when the tight fit of custom in-ears feels irksome.
I hope my experiences here help you make the right decision when you go to buy your own IEMs. In short, I found that less-expensive generic foam-tipped IEMs worked better for me in many situations, and the savings enabled me to spend my money on better drivers with a fuller sound.
If youâve used IEMâs in the past, let us know in the comments below whether you prefer custom fits or generic fit ones, and why.
ATEX Radios donât get the coverage that they deserve, they are superior to most other radios and are designed for the most dangerous and explosive situations. In the past Motorola have designed ATEX radios on current models and the respective safety features added, but this 8000XE is a new model with features not seen before on previous ATEX radio. Hot off the Motorola News desk, you can find the original article here.
Motorola SolutionsÂ continuesÂ to design digital radio solutions for firefighters and has added the APX 8000XE two-way radio and APX XE500 RSM to its line of products. The newest entries into Motorola Solutionsâ award-winning APX portfolio of Project 25 (P25) digital radios have been developed using the companyâs well-established practice of hands-on research with firefighters and other first responders who need the most reliable mission-critical communications to do their jobs efficiently, effectively and safely every day.
The APX 8000XE features all-band functionality and is a rugged P25 two-way radio that can be used in either analog or digital mode across 700/800 MHz, VHF, and UHF bands. Time is of the essence for firefighters and they can be ready inÂ momentsÂ by programming the radio remotely via WiFi and radio management software to operate securely on different radio networks, allowing them to quickly help neighboring counties during large-scale emergencies.
Motorola Solutions works closely with firefighters and other radio users to find out exactly what they need, and the APX 8000XE is the latestÂ exampleÂ of that thinking. It features the trusted ergonomics of the APX XE radio series,Â designedÂ for easy operation in harsh conditions. The right-sized radio has a large top display, exaggerated controls for gloved hands, and aÂ dedicatedÂ push-to-talk button. It also provides best-in-class audio with a 1-watt speaker, three built-in microphones and automatic noise suppression for clarity in the loudest of environments.
âThe APX 8000XE is an all-band rugged and submersible portable radio made for firefighters,â said Lieutenant David Hudik, ElginÂ Fire Department. âWith Wi-Fi access, we can reprogram the APX 8000XE on the fly when we are providing mutualÂ aidÂ assistance out-of-state.â
Most firefighters use a remote speaker microphone with their radios and the APX XE500 RSM isÂ designedspecifically for demanding environments, whether combating a fire or providing medical services at the scene of an accident:
With five strategically placed microphones and automatic noise suppression, the APX XE500 Â provides clear communications when worn on either shoulder, center chest, or over the shoulder.
It can be submersed in two meters of water for up to 4 hours.
It withstands heat conditions of up to 500Â°F (260Â°C) for up to five minutes.
A channel knob automatically controls the channels of the userâs portable APX radio.
âWith the APX XE500 RSM, I can completely control my APX radio without having to hunt under my bunker coat for it,â said Lieutenant David Hudik, ElginÂ Fire Department. âWith improved water porting, you can carry the APX XE500 upright or upside down for fast water drainage while maintainingÂ clear voicecommunications.â
âCustomer input is essential to our design and the ElginÂ Fire DepartmentÂ was right at our side as we tested the capabilities of the APX 8000XE and APX XE500 RSM,â said Claudia Rodriguez, vice president, Devices Product Management, Motorola Solutions. âThe latest XE radio means firefighters will be able to talk with other first responders at the scene and across municipalities and regions. The new rugged RSM means they can communicate clearly in the loudest fireground environments, including blaring horns and wailing sirens.â
The APX 8000XE and XE500 RSM will be available in NorthÂ America.
Many business and factories are very well aware of their legal obligations when it comes to occupational deafness, and here in the UK we have the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2006. Many of the headsets that are listed on Headsetonline.co.uk are designed exactly for these types of industries, with their experience they are a leader in radio headsets and hearing protection equipment. But as the article below explains the protection has to personalised to everyone, so as to make sure that the individual is catered for and protected adequately. The original source of this article can be found here.
Hearing loss is preventable. Why, then, is it still so common? NIOSH notes that occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States. And according to OSHA, approximately 30 million people in the United States are exposed to hazardous noise on the job.
âNoise-induced hearing loss is generally a gradual and painless process, so many workers donât consider it a hazard â¦ until itâs too late,â said Katie Mielcarek, marketing manager for Cleveland-based Gateway Safety Inc. Mielcarek went on to say that workers donât wear hearing protection for many reasons, including discomfort, poor fit and problems with compliance monitoring and trouble inserting earplugs.
Here, industry insiders discuss whatâs new and offer advice on hearing protection.
âElectronic muffs contain the latest technology designed to protect against environments with impulse noises,â said Eric Moreno, market manager for Cranberry Township, PA-based MSA. âThe technology amplifies weak sounds while compressing dangerous noises to a predetermined safe level of 82 dB or lower.â Moreno said this allows face-to-face communication and lets workers hear important sounds, such as warning signals.
Gary Klee, product manager for above-the-neck products at Latham, NY-based Protective Industrial Products Inc., pointed to a âlevel-dependent systemâ available with electronic earmuffs. This system has microphones in both ear cups to help limit sounds reproduced through the internal speakers to a safe level, which âallows communication with others while remaining protected against impulsive or hazardous noise,â Klee said.
Ricardo Allamelou, COO for Miami Lakes, FL-based Cotral Lab Inc., said providing every worker with the exact same type of hearing protection doesnât make sense. âThe protection has to be personalized since overprotection is as dangerous as no protection at all,â he said.
According to Moreno, âOverprotecting can actually increase the danger to a personâs life because this can hinder their ability to hear relevant noises such as warning signals, moving vehicles, other workers, etc.â To reduce the chance of overprotecting, Moreno recommends thoroughly understanding the level of noise in every area of the workplace to determine what level of protection each area needs.
Additionally, be sure your hearing protection is independently, third-party tested to verify noise reduction ratings, Mielcarek said. âThis helps communicate quality in an industry where many manufacturers simply mark their products with a standard or a rating, without the testing to back it up.â
It is a wise idea to consider learning how to use a two-way radio in communications. By so doing, one is able to improve their experience in using a radio in communication. Over the years, a number of rules have been put in place to ensure that radio communications proceed more efficiently. These rules can be generalized as the etiquette for using two-way radios. Here are a few radio etiquette that should be considered when using a two-way radio:
Radio Etiquette Rules
It is important to bear in mind that English is the internationally recognized radio language. Users should ensure that they speak English when www.2wayradionline.co.uk . However, there are exceptional cases where a user might be licensed to use other languages in radio communications.
It is not good etiquette to speak and listen to the person on the receiving end without allowing them time to finish what they are saying. This means that it is important to take turns when communicating with a radio. This is unlike the normal phone communication.
It is not good to interrupt someone. Rather, it is important to listen without interrupting other people. However, the only exception where one is allowed to interrupt is when they have some emergency information they would like to convey.
It is advisable not to respond to calls that one is not sure about. In such situations, it is wise to wait for call signs that confirm whose call it is before making any response.
It is wise not to ever transmit military, confidential, sensitive or financial information via a radio call. This is because radio communications can be tapped and be heard by the wrong recipients. Unless one is sure that their conversation is properly secured with high level encryption software, sensitive information should never be transmitted via a radio.
One should always perform checks on their radio to confirm that they are working properly. One should ensure that their radio battery is fully charged and its power is on. The volumes should at all time high. This will allow one to follow the conversation without strain. Additionally, one should ensure that they are within a range that can receive radio signals.
It is prudent to remember and memorize call locations and signs of radio stations and persons that one regularly communicates with. This is because name calling is discouraged in radio communications. People use call signs that are unique to everybody.
One should at all time think before speaking. This implies that one should not just say anything that comes in their mind but should carefully decide what to say. Communications should always be kept clear and precise. Additionally, one should not use complex sentences. Similarly, one should consider dividing long messages into shorter, separate messages for easy understanding. Abbreviations should at all times be avoided unless the receiving end understands the message.
When using a radio in communication, one should ensure that the voice is clear. It is wise to speak slowly and avoid shouting for clarity purposes. Radio messages should be kept simple, precise, and to the point. This allows brevity and simplicity in the entire conversation. As stated earlier, it is advisable to avoid radio transmission of confidential information for security purposes.
It is quite a common thing that musicians and artists that are exposed to loud noise, will eventually suffer from hearing damage. We have seen many artists suffer from this career threatening damage, the likes of Phil Collins, Eric Clapton and Ozzy Osbourne and the tinnitus that is effecting Chris Martin from Coldplay, this is a problem that many more will be affected by. This article from the BBC talks about Chris Goldscheider and his pursuit of damages over his hearing damage. Rightly or wrongly itâs an interesting tale.
A renowned viola player is suing the Royal Opera House for ruining his hearing and his career during rehearsals of Wagnerâs Die Walkure.
Chris Goldscheider claims his hearing was irreversibly damaged by brass instruments put immediately behind him.
The Musiciansâ Union says hearing damage is a major problem for musicians playing in orchestras.
The Royal Opera House denies it is responsible, but around a quarter of its players suffer hearing illnesses.
In court documents seen by the BBC, Goldscheider claims that in 2012 his hearing was “irreversibly damaged” during rehearsals of Richard Wagnerâs thunderous Die Walkure “from brass instruments placed immediately behind him” in the famous “pit” at the Royal Opera House.
The sound peaked at around 137 decibels, which is roughly the sound of a jet engine. The court documents say the noise “created an immediate and permanent traumatic threshold shift”.
Image captionChris Goldscheider played the viola with some of the worldâs greatest orchestras
Goldscheider says this amounts to “acoustic shock”, one effect of which is that the brain hugely amplifies ordinary sounds.
Music has been in most of Goldscheiderâs life: “For the last quarter of a century Iâve been a professional musician. Music was my income. It was my everything,” he says.
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The son of a composer, from the age of 10 he spent in excess of six hours a day practising and rehearsing. He played the viola with the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic and BBC Symphony orchestras, before joining the prestigious Royal Opera House orchestra in 2002.
Career highlights have included performing live with the famous Three Tenors to 100,000 people at the Barcelona Camp Nou football stadium, and with Kylie Minogue on MTV. He has also recorded with artists including the band 10cc.
Goldscheider says the effects of the hearing damage have been devastating.
“Ordinary sounds like banging cups and glasses together is a very painful noise,” he says.
“My newborn daughter last year was crying so much I actually got noise-induced vertigo because of my injury and I ended up in bed for three weeks.”
The musician says he has lost the career he loved and his mental health has deteriorated as he struggles to cope with the impact and effects of his hearing problems.
Life has changed dramatically. To carry out ordinary every day tasks such as preparing food, Chris has to wear ear protectors. Especially upsetting is that he had been unable to listen to his 18-year-old son Ben – one of the countryâs outstanding young French horn players.
“Ben is a fantastic musician. I havenât been able to listen to him play or practice since my injury. Iâve missed him playing concerts and winning competitions. I canât even bear him practising in an upstairs room when I am downstairs in the house,” he says.
musician has to wear ear protectors to carry out every day tasks
At the time of his injury, Goldscheider was provided with hearing protection capable of reducing the noise by up to 28 decibels, but his lawyers claim this was insufficient. They say he was not given enough training in how to use it and protect himself, and that the noise levels should not have been so dangerously high.
The Royal Opera House does not accept the rehearsal noise caused Goldscheiderâs injury, and denies that is responsible.
In a statement it told the BBC: “Mr Goldscheiderâs compensation claim against the Royal Opera House is a complex medico-legal issue, which has been going on for some time and is still under investigation.
“All sides are keen to reach a resolution. The matter is now the subject of legal proceedings, and in the circumstances it wouldnât be appropriate to comment any further at this stage.”
And according to Goldscheiderâs solicitor Chris Fry, part of the Royal Opera Houseâs defence breaks new legal ground.
“Essentially what is being said is that the beautiful artistic output justifies damaging the hearing of the musicians performing it,” he says.
“Thatâs never been tested by the courts. We donât think the court is likely to uphold that, in particular where itâs clear steps could be taken to maintain the beautiful sound and protect hearing at the same time.”
he Royal Opera House denies it is responsible for Chris Goldscheiderâs hearing issue
Hearing damage suffered by rock musicians is well documented. Years ago The Whoâs Pete Townsend went public about his hearing loss and famously said a doctor had told him: “Youâre not actually going deaf, but Iâd advise you to learn to lip read.”
Brian Johnson of AC/DC and Ozzy Osborne have also been affected. But what is far less well known is that it is a significant problem in the more sedate and sophisticated world of classical music.
There are around 100 players in the orchestra at the Royal Opera House. The BBC has learnt more than a quarter report occasional or mild hearing illness, and that in the 2013/14 season, there were seven cases of sickness absence related to noise problems and a total of 117 weeks of sick leave taken. Thatâs not music to anyoneâs ears.
Morris Stemp of the Musicians Union says there are many reasons for the hearing damage suffered by classical musicians.
“Conductors are allowed to ride roughshod over health and safety considerations,” he says. “They put players on the stage where they will be in harmâs way. And instruments are now louder than they ever were before because of the materials they are now made from.”
Add to that the increased number of live concerts prompted in part by the drop in income from CD sales, and there is a mix of elements that can put the hearing of orchestra players at serious risk.
Chris Goldscheiderâs case casts light on a little known or discussed problem, and will be watched closely by all those in the classical music world.
A unique species of early cretaceous snake â unique in that it apparently had four functioning limbs â has been discovered in the BÃ¼rgermeister MÃ¼ller Museum in Solnhofen, Germany this month.
The discovery was made by Dr. David Martill of the University of Portsmouth, who was showing a group of students through the museumâs collection when he noticed the specimenâs remarkable attributes.
The snake, which measured about 15 centimetres from nose to tail, is thought to have been a carnivore (a fact borne out by the bones of smaller animals preserved in its stomach) and probably hunted via constriction, like many of todayâs snakes. Experts believe that it may even have used its limbs to aid in the process.
Built for burrowing (an activity which likely would not have included its limbs in any significant way), this new discovery lends credence to the scientists who argue for snake evolution occurring on land, as opposed to in the sea.
Fossil snakes with stunted hind limbs are known to palaeontologists â and even todayâs boas and pythons have a small pair of spurs where their hind limbs are thought to have once been. However, no snake, extinct or extant, has ever been discovered with four limbs.
Appropriately enough, Dr. Martill named the creature Tetrapodophis, meaning âfour-legged snakeâ.
However, some experts are not convinced. In our vibrant, ecologically diverse world, there are a great many species of legless lizards that are not true snakes. European slow worms, for example, are snake-like in aspect, but they are lizards, not snakes. Another example would be the Mexican Bipedidae family, which are serpentine in appearance, but which retain a pair of fully functioning forelimbs.
âIs it even a snake? I honestly donât think so,â said the University of Albertaâs Dr. Michael Caldwell, an expert in snake evolution, to National Geographic.comâs Ed Yong. According to Caldwell and a growing number of other critics, Tetrapodophis lacks certain distinctive features in the spine and the skull that would label it a snake. The fact that this is the only known specimen in the world and that the skull is only partially preserved will probably see the debate continue until such time as a complete specimen is unearthed.
But Dr. Martill is insistent that his discovery is a snake. Speaking to National Geographic, he pointed out the specimenâs backwards-pointing teeth, single row of belly scales, the connections between the vertebrae and the shortness of the animalâs tail after the hip â all of which suggest snake to the educated observer. Of course, many legless lizards also feature these traits, but none has all of them. This means that even if the animal has been mis-identified, it is still totally unique to science.
Even more mysterious are the origins of the fossil itself, which contains the rather distinctive characteristics indicative of the Crato formation in Brazil. Discounting for a second that this is quite possibly the earliest fossil snake known to have emerged from South America, question marks have been raised regarding how the specimen could have made it to Germany when the trade of such artefacts is illegal under Brazilian law.
Since 1942, it has been illegal for any unlicensed person to dig for fossils in Brazil without first gaining permission from the Brazilian National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM). Last year, a number of people were prosecuted (where they faced a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison) for the illegal export of Brazilian fossils to museums in Germany and Great Britain. Odds are that Brazilian authorities, as well as the scientific community in general, will be looking into the origins of such an important find with great interest.
One question that is frequently asked by people interested in buying two way radios is that can you mix brands of two way radios. To answer this question properly, it is imperative to understand first how the devices work. It should be known that whether you have a small business or a large warehousing facility, UHF band radios never communicate with the VHF band radios. Therefore, if you are looking to buy a radio, make sure to buy additional units of the device of similar bands. In this way be it a UHF band radio or a VHF band radio, if set to the same frequency can work with all brands. However, some considerations have to be put in its place beforehand.
Two way radios imply that it can both send as well as receive radio messages . They are transceivers that are battery powered. The radios operate on a half-duplex channel system. This system implies that the radio will be able to transmit a signal on a single channel that can be received on many devices at the same time. Normally these radios are designed to transmit short-range signals. Almost all of the two way radios function on the same principle. They all include a microphone, an antenna, a speaker, and the Push to talk Button. These radios are designed to function on different frequencies.
The general public use frequencies are the Family radio service frequency or the FRS and the general Mobile radio Service frequency or GMRS. Both these frequencies work on a 460 MHz rage. The UHF frequency or the ultra-high frequency is ideal for the two way radios as they can easily penetrate the interference in the form of building and trees. The two way radio with a long UHF antenna will push through the concrete and will do your work efficiently. On the other hand, VHF antennas on the radios are much longer than the ones in the UHF radios. These are ideal to use in the outdoors as they usually can transmit signals over very large distances.
Types of radios
There are normally two types of radios, that are used in businesses and that are used in consumer situations. The consumer radios normally work on the FRS or the GMRS frequencies. Regardless of the number of channels in the radio, the two way radios can be mixed with other brand radios. Only the radios have to be set to the same privacy code, the channel number, and the same frequency. Alternatively, there are several different types of frequency in the business two way radios category. The radios use the UHF, VHF and the 800/900 MHz type frequency. Just by choosing, the radio with the same frequency may not be compatible with the radios of other brands bought beforehand. While buying the radio, the dealer may have programmed a special customized frequency into the radio beforehand. In order for the business, two way radios to work efficiently with the radios of different brands it is essential to completely figure the type of band that the radio uses, the pre-set frequency on the radio from the dealer.